Aleppo means the iron and copper according to the Amorite language, its weather is little hot during the day light and cool at nights.
Aleppo is the second biggest city in Syria. It is located in northern Syria on a hard calcareous basaltic rocks, the rocks that helped the artists and engineers to create and develop the long history of this magnificent city, they built citadels, markets, buildings, strips, and schools, all made out of the basaltic rocks.
It is located 360 km north of Damascus at the crossroads of several trade routes; Aleppo was very prosperous from the 3rd millennium BC, a prosperity it preserved throughout its evolution and its settlement. The old city was surrounded by a defensive enclosure, flanked by towers and fortified gates from the Islamic era in the meddle. Aleppo is famous for its mosques, Madrasas (the Fardos Madrassa is one of the outstanding religious buildings) and churches. It is still a very active Arab commercial city. Aleppo has a jumble of houses in the subtlest pastel colors with slender minarets and, dominating it all, the great mass of the citadel. The southern ramparts, partly cleared of houses, lead to the impressive of all the fortified gates, Bab Qinnesrin.
At the year 1987 the UNESCO has registered Aleppo as a national historical city due to the huge number of ruins and citadels. Aleppo, according to the UNESCO, is located at the crossroads of several trade routes since the 2nd millennium B.C., Aleppo was ruled successively by the Hittites, Assyrians, Acadians, Greeks, Romans, Umayyads, Ayubids, Mameluks and Ottomans who left their stamp on the city; The citadel, the 12th-century Great Mosque and various 16th and 17th-centuries Madrasas, residences, khans and public baths, all form part of the city’s cohesive, unique urban fabric.
In 1992, the Project for rehabilitation of old Aleppo was set up under the Municipality of Aleppo in cooperation with international agencies. In 1999, the Directorate of the Old City was established under the Municipality of Aleppo to guide the rehabilitation of the old city with three departments covering studies and planning; permits and monitoring, and implementation and maintenance. A comprehensive plan for the evolution of the city is being prepared by the old city Directorate office. The city’s development is being considered under the ‘Programmers for Sustainable Urban Development in Syria’ (UDP), a joint undertaking project between international agencies, the Syrian Ministries of Local Administration and Environment, and several other Syrian partner institutions. The program promotes capacities for sustainable urban management and development at the national and municipal level, and includes further support to the rehabilitation of the Old City.
The archeological sites of Aleppo in short are:
– Cyrus of Hori the Prophet.
– Aleppo Citadel, which has been built by Alexander the Great and it is considered as one of the largest castles in the world.
– Great Umayyad Mosque.
– Star castle.
– Al-Didria cave.
– Abbey Simon castle.
– Temple of Ain Dara.
The doors of Aleppo: Bab Guensrin, Bab AL-neirab, Bab Antioch, the Baba al-Nasr (Door of victory), and the Bab Al-makam, and others. (Bab means Door, as in Bab toma in Damascus)
Aleppo has two towers: the clock tower, and the clock of Bab Al Faraj.
Khans of Aleppo: Khan of the customs, Wazir Khan, Venetians Khan, Harir (silk) Khan, Judge Khan and Soap Khan, Khayr Biek Khan, Al-Qassabeyn Khan, and others.
Ancient bridges on the Afrin River
Aragonese Bimaristan ,and AL Nouri bimaristan
The most amazing site among the abandon cities in the world is The Dead City of Serjilla, it is just too cool. It’s a series of abandoned stone buildings that once comprised an obviously bustling urban center. These days, you can see everything from in-tact buildings to crumbling ones. There are no paintings that I could see, but there were some carvings, intact arches, and two-level houses.
Where to go in Aleppo?
Aleppo contains more than 12000 meters of ancient markets, they count about 39 Souqes (markets) all of them are still crowded and offer the magnificent traditional goods and products. It has the features of the modern cities and the look of the ancient one. The prices are low and you can find anything you ask starting from needles ending with cars all made in Syria. So if you attend to visit ancient places and historical sites you can visit Aleppo, to see the following:
1- The Jami al Kabir entrance (Umayyad or Great Mosque) is opposite an old Koranic school, the al Halawyah Madrassa, installed in the former Byzantine cathedral erected at the command of the Empress Helena. The Great Mosque was founded in the early Islamic period, but there is little to see that dates from that time. The Mameluke minaret dates from 1090 and is, with its fine proportions and Kufic inscriptions, a good example of the great period of Islamic architecture in Syria. The north facade is one side of the square.
2- St George’s Cathedral stands behind a labyrinth of narrow streets on a tiny square. The postern gate in the middle of the ramparts (Bab Antakia) is the Antioch Gate. Beyond there are many important monuments, the little domed Byzantine church converted into a mosque; a prison with dungeons dug into the rock; a stretch of wall 4 meters thick, the base of a Syrio-Hittite temple; the remains of a great mosque built by Saladin’s son; a covered building containing sculpture and objects from various periods found on the site; the tomb of Emir Zaher Ghazi (son of Saladin) in an annex to a madrasa founded during the Crusader period.
3- The 13th century royal palace, with its fine stalactite and honeycomb entrance porch, is inlaid with white marble. The throne room, dating from the Mameluke period (15th-16th centuries) has been tastefully restored: Syrian artists and craftsmen have recreated the luxurious setting of the court, the ceiling with its decorated beams and caissons, lighting, windows, polychrome columns; all are a tribute to their skill. There are around 200 minarets, some squat like defensive towers, others slender as needles. On the other side stands a fine octagonal, part of the 15th century al Atroush mosque.
Aleppo is the city of the merchants, food, and heavenly sounds. So if you want to visit Aleppo the modern city; you should consider the traditional restaurants that offer traditional food and singers with Al-mawlaweah bands you will have great luxury time be careful you will eat too much and you might think you gain weight but don’t worry this experience deserve such gain.
Finally; the last thing I should mention about Aleppo is the great hospitality of its people and the pleasant accent they use. People of Aleppo use very difficult Syrian accent, worm and intimate one it makes you smile even if they talk English or any other foreign language you will notice their accent and can differ them from others in the world.
GPS coordinates of Aleppo:
Decimal Minutes (GPS): N36 12.93725 E37 9.5565
Decimal (WGS84): 36.215621, 37.159275
Degrees Minutes Seconds: N 36° 12′ 56.235″, E 37° 9′ 33.39″.
It is a border area and the main gate to Turkey the people of Aleppo is a mixed of Turkish, Armenian, Kurdish, and Arab all of them are living together in a solid and perfect unity.